The application and development of woodblock printing 2.1
section II the development and prosperity of woodblock printing industry
the book carving industry of the first and fifth dynasties
the fifth Dynasty is one of the large-scale separatist periods in Chinese feudal society. From 907 A.D. to 960 A.D., the Northern Song Dynasty was unified. In just 50 years, there were five dynasties in the Central Plains, including the Later Liang Dynasty, the later Tang Dynasty, the later Jin Dynasty, the later Han Dynasty, and the Later Zhou Dynasty. Outside the Central Plains, there were ten independent Kingdoms, including Wu, the Southern Tang Dynasty, Wu Yue, Chu, min, the Southern Han Dynasty, the former Shu, the latter Shu, Nanping, and the northern Han Dynasty. This was the period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms in Chinese history. During this period, we should first analyze the reasons for the errors. There are fierce warlord scuffles between separatist regimes across the country, resulting in frequent dynasty changes. However, the Five Dynasties played an important role in the history of Chinese book printing. Compared with Jinan Shijin, the printing industry of the Five Dynasties actively assisted the orderer to complete the maintenance task. In the Tang Dynasty, the printing area was more extensive, the printing scale was further expanded, and the number was also significantly increased. Engravers entered the upper intellectuals and government official institutions from the folk and temples, and began to appear government engraved books and private engraved books. Printing, an invention and creation from the folk, has been supported in the application of the government, providing favorable conditions for its own development and expansion, and showing broad prospects for development
(I) the beginning of official engraved books
1 In the third year of Changxing reign of Emperor Ming of the late Tang Dynasty, the Confucian classics were engraved. When printing had become popular among the people, the ruling class still used the old method of emperor Hanling to engrave the stone scriptures in order to unify the classical texts used in the examination. During the Kaicheng period of emperor Wenzong of the Tang Dynasty, twelve Confucian classics were carved on the stone tablet and stood in the Imperial College of Chang'an. The stone carving was written in regular script. The stone scriptures engraved are Yi, Shu, Shi, three rites, three biographies, Analects of Confucius, filial piety, Erya, five classics and nine classics, which are called "Kaicheng stone scriptures" in later generations. Up to the Five Dynasties, the first year of the reign of Shu Guangzheng (938) still insisted on the act of carving stone scriptures. After twenty-eight years, it has been carved into ten Classics (only a part of Zuo Shi's biography in the spring and Autumn period, missing Gongyang biography and GuLiang Biography). At that time, the Confucian classics had been proposed by Feng Dao, the Prime Minister of the late Tang Dynasty, and the government began to use block printing. The carving of stone scriptures reflects the ruling class's neglect and conservatism of new things; It also reflects how standard and error free readers are needed by the society. It was the urgent need of the society for the standard book of reading and the promotion of the printing industry gradually developed among the people that led to the event that the Confucian classics were engraved by the government in the three years after the Changxing of Emperor Ming in the late Tang Dynasty
in February of the third year of Changxing in the Tang Dynasty, the government approved the request of the Zhongshu sect to engrave the printing plate of the nine classics according to the words of the stone Sutra. "The Imperial College was ordered to collect scholars and scholars, copy and annotate the stone scriptures of Xijing with their own scriptures, read them carefully, and then hire and call craftsmen who can engrave words. Each part will be engraved and widely issued to the world. For example, people of all kinds should write scriptures according to the printed scriptures, and they must not make miscellaneous books more intertwined.". Under the Zhongshu gate, it refers to prime ministers Feng Dao, Li Yu and others, and the playing invitation refers to the playing invitation of Feng Dao and Li Yu. "CE Fu Yuan GUI" contains "the prime ministers of the late Tang Dynasty Feng Dao and Li Yu paid attention to classics. Because they worshipped Confucianism in the Han Dynasty, they had three characters of the stone Sutra, which was also published in the Imperial Academy in the Tang Dynasty. At present, the imperial court is too busy to carve differently. I have seen people in Wu and Shu, who have printed board characters and a vast number of color categories, which are ultimately less than classics. If classics are calibrated and engraved, they are popular, which is deeply beneficial to culture and education". The purpose of publishing the nine classics, just like the purpose of stone carving in previous dynasties, is to correct the classic words and make readers have standard readings. At that time, with social unrest and wars, the country was unable to carve the stone scriptures. The motivation for engraving and printing was precisely because of the popularity of printed books in the market. Feng Dao and Li Yu's memorials have made it clear that the government's agreement to adopt printing was influenced by the popularity of folk printed books
at that time, it was planned to print nine kinds of scriptures, namely, Yi, Shu, Shi, Zhou Li, Yili, Liji, Zuo Shi biography of spring and autumn, Gongyang biography of spring and autumn, and Liang biography of spring and autumn valley. According to the "Kaicheng stone Sutra" of the Tang Dynasty as the base for proofreading
this is the first carving of Confucian classics and the first use of printing by the ruling class. The state attaches great importance to it, In April of the third year of Changxing, the emperor again issued an imperial edict: "Recently, I have compiled and annotated stone sutras, carved printing plates, and sent five or six Confucian scholars to study and annotate each Sutra of the National Academy of Sciences of the Communist Party of China. Today, five people are sent to fill in the details of the collation officer in the court, including the prince's guest Ma Xuan, Chen Guan of Taichang Cheng, Duan Wen of the Ministry of rites and doctor of Taichang, Lu hang of doctor Taichang, and Tian min of the field reclamation officer Wai lang. I am very serious and different from all the books. Although there are a lot of words covered by the National Academy of the Communist Party of China and the exploration and annotation of the National Academy of Sciences of the Communist Party of China, there may be occasional errors, including Ma Xuan and the following A master of Confucianism and various professional classics make collation more expensive and must be studied carefully. The Imperial College of the propaganda Commission selects all kinds of people. The calligrapher can write in regular script, and the craftsman can engrave it. Five pieces of paper are written every day, minus one choice. If there is no choice, it can be reduced, According to it, it is a major event in the country's political life to engrave and print Confucian classics. Although the teachers and students of the Imperial College have been assigned to be responsible for the calibration, in order to prevent errors, the emperor once again assigned five experts to carefully collate the Scriptures to ensure the accuracy of the Scriptures, and stipulated that those who are good at calligraphy should be selected among the teachers and students of the Imperial College to write the last edition in block letters.
the work of engraving and printing Confucian classics began in the third year of Changxing (932) At the beginning, it was not completed until the third year of Guangshun in the Later Zhou Dynasty (953). It took 21 years after the late Tang Dynasty, the Late Jin Dynasty, the late Han Dynasty and the Later Zhou Dynasty. Twelve scriptures were printed. In addition to the nine classics, including the Analects of Confucius, the filial piety Sutra and Erya, two books of five classics and nine classics were also printed. Shortly after the engraving of the nine classics was completed, the Imperial College collated and engraved the classic commentaries written by Tang ludeming in the second year of Zhou Xiande (955)
"CE Fu Yuan GUI" records: "in June of the third year of Guangshun, Taizu of Zhou Dynasty, the minister Zuo Cheng and the supervisor of making the son of the state Tian min presented two copies of the nine classics, five classics and nine classics respectively, 130 volumes."
"jade sea": "in February of the third year of Changxing in the late Tang Dynasty, the Imperial College was ordered to correct the nine classics, transcribe the tablets from the stone scriptures of Xijing, and issue them to the world. In April, Ma Xuan, Chen Guan, and Tian min were ordered to collate them in detail. In June of the third year of Zhou Guangshun, Ding Si, the" eleven classics "and the" Erya "," the text of the five classics ", and the words of the nine classics" were printed, and sentenced to supervise Tian min. (two parts, 130 volumes each), four doctorates, li e, and only "Gongyang" Guo Shan Xi's book in the first three rites. "
in the process of proofreading and engraving the nine classics for more than 20 years, Tian min, who has been doing this all the time, presented the printing plate to the emperor, and said," ministers and other officials proofread and printed the nine classics in the three years of Changxing. There are many sutras and different ages, and they spread and wrote the pitiful Miao, gradually losing the foundation. Ministers and other officials guard Jiaoxiang, and their functions are proofreading, asking for help and preparing carvings. Fortunately, they met the holy Dynasty, ended their affairs, spread their virtues, and spread their teachings to the world. I hereby state. "Thanks to the serious efforts of the teachers and students of the National Academy of Sciences and the hard work of many engravers, printers and binding craftsmen, it was finally achieved with the strong support of the state. Of course, it is fortunate.
the opening of the carving of Confucian classics is indeed an event of great historical significance.
first of all, it created a precedent for the adoption of printing in scriptures. At this time, although printing has been popularized and applied in China for hundreds of years, there are a large number of" color categories "of printed materials." No classics ". in the past, it took time and labor to provide standard teaching materials by means of inscribing steles and erecting stones in the imperial court, and people were prone to omissions and errors when copying. Now, with the printed version, it can not only achieve the purpose of unifying the fixed version, but also facilitate the rapid provision of a large number of copies for social needs, which has played a positive role in promoting the prosperity and development of ancient academia, the popularization of culture and education, and the preservation and circulation of books and documents.
Second, printing should The scope of use rose from printing only folk daily necessities to Confucian books regarded as classics at that time. Printing received the attention of the government, which was more conducive to its own development and improvement. From the past, it appeared in the folk and temples, and began to be exposed to the world. The advantages of printing technology, such as speed, convenience and low cost, have gradually been fully reflected. In the process of large-scale application, it has promoted the continuous reform and innovation of technology, and laid a good foundation for the invention of movable type printing while the engraving technology developed mature in the Chinese plastic machinery market
third, printing entered the government from the folk, and from then on, the government engraved books, and the Imperial College engraved books is the main body of the government engraved books. The engraved edition is collected in Guozijian, so it is also called "jianben". This system affects the historical dynasties of later generations. The jianben of Song Dynasty is engraved with the Jianban left by the Five Dynasties as the base. Song people call it "Gujian version" or "Gujing version". Guozijian engraved books attaches great importance to the selection of base books. Careful collation and handwriting on the board of excellent calligraphers have set an example for future generations to carve books and formed a good tradition of printed books in ancient China
fourth, the Imperial College was the highest institution of learning in the feudal era. The school is responsible for the compilation, collation, printing, publication and distribution of textbooks. Until modern times, Chinese colleges and universities have their own publishing institutions, which not only serve the teaching and scientific research of their teachers and students, but also provide excellent books for the society. It is an important force in the national publishing and distribution system
fifth, it marks the beginning of a new stage in the circulation of books and the dissemination of characters in China, that is, printing will replace handwriting. In the past, although there were printing activities in society, its use was limited to some areas and spread among the people. Generally speaking, the society relies on copying to make books. During the Five Dynasties, due to the advocacy of the ruling class, it had a great influence on society, including foaming agent manufacturers. After that, although handwritten books still spread, the printing industry developed at a faster speed, and the mainstream of book form began to enter the printing period from the writing period
2. Printing activities of other local regimes that established themselves in the Five Dynasties period
in addition to the large-scale printing of books by the late Tang government, the rulers of other local regimes also adopted printing activities. Among them, Wuyue state, which is located in the Taihu Lake Basin in the south, is more prominent. In politics, economy and production, Wu and Yue were one of the more stable and prosperous imperial courts. Qian Miao, the first ruler, was granted the title of king of Wu and Yue by Taizu of Liang Dynasty. Later, he added the marshal of the army and horse capital of the world. Three generations, five masters. A total of more than 80 years (years). The Qian kings of Wu and Yue believed in Buddhism. Loyal King Qianhong?? (or money?), he believes deeply and has built a large number of temples, pagodas and Buddhist scriptures. Since this century, many Buddhist scriptures carved and printed in Wu and Yue have been found. In 1917, during the reconstruction of Tianning Temple in Huzhou, several volumes of "all the secrets of the Tathagata heart, the whole body relic treasure chest and the printed dharoni Sutra" were found in the stone elephant trunk. In front of the title painting of the volume head is "the Grand Admiral of the world, Qian Hong, king of Wu and Yue, printed 84000 volumes of the" treasure chest seal scripture ", which was provided in the tower. The third birthday of Xiande (956) is recorded". It can be described as a large-scale printing activity, only three years later than the Confucian classics completed in 953. In 1924, Hangzhou Leifeng Pagoda collapsed, and the "Baoxiang Yinjing" was found again in the perforated tower bricks. The Scripture is inscribed with "the world is full of soldiers and horses."